# Stata Coding Guide

Empirical research in economics has grown in importance thanks to improvements in computing power and the increased availability of rich datasets. Researchers commonly estimate regressions with millions of observations derived from multiple datasets. Research teams frequently include multiple people working at different universities. Analyses employing confidential data must be performed remotely, often on a non-networked computer at a research data center. Cutting edge analyses may require thousands or millions of lines of code written in multiple languages.

These recent developments introduce complexity and the potential for non-transparent errors. Peer review rarely evaluates code, even though code often represents the bulk of the work. Research suggests that the results from many published papers cannot be reproduced from the code and data provided by the original authors. The American Economic Association’s (AEA) new data and code availability policy aims to improve this situation by imposing professional standards for coding and documentation. Unfortunately, most researchers (myself included) received little or no training in how to organize projects, write code, or document analyses.

This guide describes how to set up a robust coding environment and write a “push-button” analysis in Stata. Its purpose is to help researchers:

1. Minimize coding errors
2. Automate the creation of tables and figures
3. Integrate Stata code with supporting R analyses
4. Produce a replication package with the following features:
• Compliant with the AEA’s data and code availability policy
• Cross-platform (Mac, Windows, Unix)

The guide includes an accompanying AEA-compliant sample replication package that you are free to use as a template. Try it out and see how easy (or not!) it is to reproduce my example analysis. If you encounter any difficulties let me know.

# Setting up the environment

I work on several projects at the same time, access them from multiple computers (laptop, home, work), and share them with multiple coauthors. Using multiple environments makes it hard to define the pathname (location) of a folder. A project’s location may be /Users/jreif/my-project on one computer and /Users/coauthor/my-project on another computer. You could manually change this pathname every time a different person or different computer runs the code, but this solution is cumbersome for large projects with many lines of code. Likewise, if you install an add-on on your local computer, it will not be available to your collaborators.

Below I describe how I set up my working environment to address these challenges. Note that users are NOT required to do this in order to run my published code. But, setting up your environment like I do will make it easier to develop your analysis in environments with multiple computers and coauthors. I focus on a setting where code is written in Stata and R. Stata provides native support for running Python code, which I do not discuss here.

## Dropbox

I use Dropbox to sync my projects across environments. Dropbox has several appealing features. It creates backups across multiple computers and the Dropbox server, and in my experience has fewer bugs than alternatives such as Box. Dropbox makes it easy to share files with coauthors. All files stored on Dropbox have the same relative paths, which is helpful when writing scripts (more on this below). Version control systems can be used as an alternative or complement to Dropbox.

## Stata profile

Stata automatically runs the script profile.do upon launch (if found).

profile.do must be stored in one of the paths searched by Stata. Type adopath at the Stata prompt to view a list of the eligible paths for your particular computer. On my mac, I store this file in /Users/jreif/Documents/Stata/ado/personal/profile.do. On my PC, I store it in C:/ado/personal/profile.do.

Here are the contents of the Stata profile stored on my PC:

* Settings specific to local environment
global DROPBOX "C:/Users/jreif/Dropbox"

* Run file containing settings common to all environments
run "$DROPBOX/stata_profile.do"  This file contains settings specific to my PC, namely the location of my Dropbox folder. The Stata profile stored on my mac is identical except that it defines a different location for DROPBOX. I could also define the locations of all my projects in profile.do. But instead, I store those definitions, along with any other settings that are common across my computers, on Dropbox in a script called stata_profile.do and then call that script from profile.do. Here are the contents of an example stata_profile.do stored on Dropbox: set varabbrev off global MyProject "$DROPBOX/my-project/analysis"


The first line, set varabbrev off, is a command I want executed every time I open Stata on all my computers, for reasons I explain below. The second line defines the location of the analysis for MyProject, which I stored on Dropbox. In practice my Stata profile defines a large number of globals, one for every project I am working on. Whenever I start a new project, I define a new global for it and add it to stata_profile.do. Because all my computers are synced to Dropbox, I only have to do this once.

## R profile

I write most of my code in Stata, including C++ plugins such as strgroup. On occasion, I will use an R function that is not available in Stata, such as XGBoost. In these cases I find it convenient to setup an R environment that is consistent with my Stata environment.

Similar to Stata, R automatically runs .Rprofile upon launch (if found). This file is typically stored in your home directory, whose location you can find by typing normalizePath(path.expand("~"),winslash="/") at the R prompt.

R Tip: Additional details regarding how R sets up its environment at startup are available in this R programming guide.

Here are the contents of my R profile, stored in C:/Users/jreif/Documents/.Rprofile:

cat("Running .Rprofile...\n\n")

# Settings specific to local environment
Sys.setenv(DROPBOX = "C:/Users/jreif/Dropbox")

# Run file containing settings common to all environments
source(file.path(Sys.getenv("DROPBOX"), "R_profile.R"))


As with my Stata profile, my R profile in turn runs a second script located at the top level of my Dropbox directory. This file, R_profile.R, stores R settings common across all my computers, such as the paths for all my projects. Here is an example for the MyProject analysis:

Sys.setenv(MyProject = file.path(Sys.getenv("DROPBOX"), "my-project/analysis"))


## Version control systems

Version control systems such as Git and SVN are powerful and absolutely necessary for large software development collaborations. I myself use GitHub when developing my software packages. However, I personally find these systems unnecessary for academic analyses with a small number of coauthors and which are expected to end after publication. If you’re interested in version control, I recommend checking out Grant McDermott’s Git slides.

# Organizing the project

## Folder structure

A project includes lots of different parts: the analysis, the manuscript, related literature, grant proposals, etc. The analysis, which includes both code and data, should be kept in a distinct location. Keeping the analysis separate makes it easier to create a standalone replication package when the project is complete. A typical analysis starts with raw data (e.g., a dataset downloaded from the web). Scripts process these data and then run the analysis. Scripts and data should be stored in separate folders. The core directory structure for my analyses looks like this:

.
└── analysis/
├── data/
├── scripts/
├── 1_process_raw_data.do
└── 2_...
└── run.do


The master script, run.do, executes the entire analysis. Running this script creates all necessary additional folders, intermediate files, and results:

.
└── analysis/
├── data/
├── processed/
├── results/
├── figures/
└── tables/
├── scripts/
├── 1_process_raw_data.do
└── 2_...
└── run.do


At any time, you can delete processed/ and results/, keeping only data/ and scripts/, and then rerun your analysis from scratch. When the project is complete, a copy of analysis/ serves as a standalone replication package.

The folder scripts/ includes all scripts and libraries (add-on packages) required to run the analysis. data/ includes raw (input) data and is read-only. Thus, my scripts write files only to processed/ or results/.

The folder results/ contains all final output, including tables and figures. These can be linked to a LaTeX document on Overleaf or stored in an adjacent folder. For example, MyProject has the following folder structure:

.
├── analysis/
├── data/
├── processed/
├── results/
├── figures/
└── tables/
├── scripts/
├── 1_process_raw_data.do
└── 2_...
└── run.do
└── paper/
├── manuscript.tex
├── figures/
└── tables/


To update the MyProject manuscript, copy analysis/results/figures/ and analysis/results/tables/ to paper/, which contains manuscript files. Additional documents such as literature references can be stored in paper/ or in a separate, standalone folder at the top the project directory.

LaTeX Tip: Looking for a clean LaTeX template for your manuscript? Feel free to use my sample manuscript.

## Programs

Programs (AKA functions, subroutines) are additional pieces of code called by your scripts. These might be do-files, ado-files, or scripts written in another programming language such as R. An introduction to ado-files is available on the Stata blog. Because programs are not called directly by the master script, run.do, I usually store them in the subdirectory scripts/programs/. This reduces clutter in large projects with many scripts and many subroutines.

## Libraries

My code frequently employs user-written (add-on) Stata commands, such as regsave or reghdfe. To ensure replication, it is very important to include copies of these programs with your code:

1. A user can’t run your code without it.
2. These commands are updated over time, causing your code to break or produce different output.

Many people do not appreciate how code updates can inhibit replication. Here is an example. You perform a Stata analysis using a new, user-written estimation command called, say, regols. You publish your paper, along with your replication code, but do not include the code for regols. Ten years later a researcher tries to replicate your analysis. The code breaks because she has not installed regols. She opens Stata and types ssc install regols, which installs the newest version of that command. But, in the intervening ten years the author of regols fixed a bug in how the standard errors are calculated. When the researcher runs your code with her updated version of regols she finds your estimates are no longer statistically significant. The researcher does not know whether this happens because you included the wrong dataset with your replication, or because there is mistake in the analysis code, or because you failed to correctly copy/paste your output into your publication, or because… Whatever the reason, she cannot replicate your published results and must now decide what to conclude.

Stata takes version control seriously. You should always include a version statement in your master script. Writing version 15 instructs all future versions of Stata to execute its functions the same way Stata 15 did. However, most add-on (user-written) packages are not version controlled. To address this, I include a script called _install_stata_packages.do in all my working projects. This script installs copies of any user-written packages used by the project into a subdirectory of the project folder: analysis/scripts/libraries/stata. Rerunning this script will install updated versions of these add-ons as desired. I delete this script when my project is ready to be published, which effectively locks down the code for these user-written packages and ensures I can replicate my Stata analysis forever into the future. In addition, including these user-written packages ensures my code will run on a non-networked computer that does not have access to the internet.

Stata tip: By default, Stata searches for add-on packages in multiple folders. I recommend disabling this behavior when working on a long-term project, which will ensure that Stata looks for add-ons only in your local project folder when running your project code. The following code in my configuration script removes these non-project folders from the search path:

tokenize "$S_ADO"', parse(";") while "1'"' != "" { if "1'"'!="BASE" cap adopath - "1'"' macro shift } adopath ++ "ProjectDir'/scripts/libraries/stata"  Note: these changes apply only to the active Stata session. Closing and reopening Stata will revert to the default of searching in multiple folders. I am unaware of a version control statement for R, which means the behavior of its built-in functions may depend on what version of R you are running. As a second-best solution, my master script uses the Stata add-on command rscript to check whether the user (1) is running a sufficiently recent version of R; and (2) has installed R libraries required by my analysis, such as tidyverse. As with Stata, it is possible to install these add-on packages into your project subdirectory. In practice, doing this in R creates headaches. Add-on packages such as tidyverse are very large (hundreds of megabytes) and–if you want to ensure cross-platform replicability–need to be installed separately for Mac, Unix, and Windows. Doing this for my sample replication project would increase that project’s file size by nearly a gigabyte! I therefore again settled for a second-best solution and instead require the user to install these packages themselves. As described in my sample project README, the user can install these packages in three different ways: 1. Manually by typing, e.g., install.packages(“tidyverse”) at the R prompt 2. Automatically by opening R and running _install_R_packages.R 3. Automatically by uncommenting line 53 of run.do If you don’t mind potentially using up lots of disk space and want to ensure reproducibility, I highly recommend installing your R packages in the project subdirectory just like I did with Stata. See the commented out code in _install_R_packages.R for an example. Following this example will result in a folder structure that looks like this: . └── analysis/ ├── data/ └── scripts/ ├── libraries/ ├── R/ ├── linux/ ├── osx/ └── windows/ └── stata/ ├── programs/ ├── 1_process_raw_data.do └── 2_... └── run.do  Other alternatives–used frequently by serious users of R–include packrat, renv, and groundhog. ### Stata plugins (advanced) Most Stata add-ons are written in Stata or Mata, which are cross-platform languages that run on any computer with a copy of Stata. A small number of Stata add-ons are written in C/C++ and must be compiled to a plugin (AKA dynamically linked library, or DLL) that is specific to your computer’s architecture. Mauricio Bravo provides a nice example of the benefits of plugins. If you write C/C++ code for Stata, I encourage you to compile it for multiple platforms and include all platform-specific plugins as part of your replication package. See gtools and strgroup for examples of how to write a program that autodetects which plugin to call based on your computer’s architecture. # Automating tables Automating your tables and figures facilitates data updates and minimizes mistakes that can arise when transferring results from Stata to your manuscript. Automating figures is easy using Stata’s graph export command. Automating tables usually requires customized add-ons. There are many ways to automate tables in Stata. Below I present my preferred method, which uses Stata add-ons I developed for prior projects. This method is targeted at people who use LaTeX and desire flexible control over their table formatting; users interested only in learning about how to save regression results can read about regsave and skip the part about texsave. For examples of the kinds of tables you can automate in Stata using my add-ons, see my papers on workplace wellness or teenage driving. Popular alternatives to my add-ons include estout and outreg2. My method separates automation into two distinct steps. The first step uses regsave to save regression output to a file. The second step uses texsave to save the output in LaTeX format. In-between these two steps you can use Stata’s built-in data manipulation commands to organize your table however you like. ## regsave regsave is a Stata add-on that stores regression results. To install the latest version, run the following at your Stata prompt: net install regsave, from("https://raw.githubusercontent.com/reifjulian/regsave/master") replace  The regsave online documentation provides a full tutorial. Below, I demonstrate it using examples from my sample replication package. This code is a good example of how I use it in most of my analyses. We begin by running the following code from the script 3_regressions.do: tempfile results use "$MyProject/processed/auto.dta", clear

local replace replace
foreach rhs in "mpg" "mpg weight" {

* Domestic cars
reg price rhs' if foreign=="Domestic", robust
regsave using "results'", t p autoid addlabel(rhs,"rhs'",origin,Domestic) replace'
local replace append

* Foreign cars
reg price rhs' if foreign=="Foreign", robust
regsave using "results'", t p autoid addlabel(rhs,"rhs'",origin,"Foreign") append
}


This code estimates four different regressions and saves the results to a tempfile, results. Let’s open that file and look at the contents.

use "results'", clear
list


The file contains the regression coefficients, standard errors, t-statistics, p-values, etc. from each of the four regressions. We could have saved more information, such as confidence intervals, by specifying the appropriate option. Type help regsave to see the full set of options.

This output file can be easily analyzed and manipulated, but it is not ideal for table presentation. We can convert this “long” table to a “wide” table using the regsave_tbl helper function. Here is the relevant code from 4_make_tables_figures.do:

tempfile my_table
use "$MyProject/results/intermediate/my_regressions.dta", clear * Merge together the four regressions into one table local run_no = 1 local replace replace foreach orig in "Domestic" "Foreign" { foreach rhs in "mpg" "mpg weight" { regsave_tbl using "my_table'" if origin=="orig'" & rhs=="rhs'", name(colrun_no') asterisk(10 5 1) parentheses(stderr) sigfig(3) replace' local run_no = run_no'+1 local replace append } }  This code converts each saved regression to “wide” format and saves it to the tempfile my_table. Let’s open that tempfile and look at its contents: use "my_table'", clear list  This “wide” format is much more appropriate for a table. Of course, we still need to clean it up. For example, you may not want to report t-statistics or estimates of the constant term. In the next step below we will format the table and use texsave to output the table into a LaTeX file. ## texsave texsave is a Stata add-on that saves a dataset as a LaTeX text file. To install the latest version, type the following at your Stata prompt: net install texsave, from("https://raw.githubusercontent.com/reifjulian/texsave/master") replace  We first reformat the dataset that was produced using regsave_tbl: use "my_table'", clear drop if inlist(var,"_id","rhs","origin") | strpos(var,"_cons") drop if strpos(var,"tstat") | strpos(var,"pval") * texsave will output these labels as column headers label var col1 "Spec 1" label var col2 "Spec 2" label var col3 "Spec 1" label var col4 "Spec 2" * Display R^2 in LaTeX math mode replace var = "$$R^2$$" if var=="r2" * Clean variable names replace var = subinstr(var,"_coef","",1) replace var = "" if strpos(var,"_stderr") replace var = "Miles per gallon" if var=="mpg" replace var = "Weight (pounds)" if var=="weight" replace var = "Price (1978 dollars)" if var=="price" list  This code first removes output I didn’t want to report in this table, such as t-statistics and estimates of the constant term. It then labels the four columns of estimates. As we shall see, those Stata labels will serve as column headers in the LaTeX table. The code then rewrites r2 using LaTeX math syntax. The final lines of the code provide more descriptive labels for the regressors. Typing list shows that our table now looks like this: LaTeX Tip 1: You can indicate a math environment in LaTeX using either $$...$$ or $...$ syntax. It’s usually easier to use the $$...$$ syntax because $ marks global macros in Stata.

LaTeX Tip 2: If your dataset includes LaTeX code (e.g., $$R^2$$ in table above), instruct texsave not to modify it by specifying the nofix option. (See code below for an example.)

We are now ready to save the table in LaTeX format using texsave. We will provide a title, some additional LaTeX code for the header of the table, and a footnote:

local title "Association between automobile price and fuel efficiency"
local headerlines "& \multicolumn{2}{c}{Domestic cars} & \multicolumn{2}{c}{Foreign cars} " "\cmidrule(lr){2-3} \cmidrule(lr){4-5}"
local fn "Notes: Outcome variable is price (1978 dollars). Columns (1) and (2) report estimates of $$\beta$$ from equation (\ref{eqn:model}) for domestic automobiles. Columns (3) and (4) report estimates for foreign automobiles. Robust standard errors are reported in parentheses. A */**/*** indicates significance at the 10/5/1\% levels."

# Stata coding tips

• Use forward slashes for pathnames ($DROPBOX/project not $DROPBOX\project). Backslashes are an escape character in Stata and can cause problems depending on what operating system you are running. Using forward slashes ensures cross-platform compatibility.

• Never use hard-coded paths like C:/Users/jreif/Dropbox/my-project. All pathnames should reference a global variable defined either in your Stata profile or in your master script. Anyone should be able to run your entire analysis from their computer without having to edit any scripts, with the exception of defining a single global variable in run.do.

• Avoid spaces and capital letters in file and folder names. Case sensitivity varies across different file systems, and spaces create nuisances when working from the command line or with weblinks. (Your files and folders may eventually be made available online!)

• Include set varabbrev off in your Stata profile. This helps you avoid mistakes such as accidently referencing the wrong variable.

• When working with large datasets, use Mauricio Bravo’s gtools and Sergio Correia’s reghdfe.

• Rewrite your code frequently and make it readable. Provide helpful comments in the code and make your variable names meaningful (but short). Provide more detailed descriptions using the label variable command. Always include units in the label.

• Sometimes an analysis may inexplicably produce different results despite no changes to the code. Here are two common reasons why this happens:

1. One of your commands requires random numbers and you forgot to use set seed #
2. You have a nonunique sort. Add isid checks to your code prior to sorting to ensure uniqueness. (Another option is to add the stable option to your sorts.) Nonunique sorts can be hard to spot:
* Stata's default type is float
* With N=100,000 a randomly generated float may not be unique
* isid produces error unless you set Stata's default type to double
clear
set seed 100
set obs 100000
gen r = uniform()
isid r

* Cast r as a double to avoid this problem
clear
set seed 100
set obs 100000
gen double r = uniform()
isid r
`

AEA Data Editor’s guide

Dan Sullivan’s best practices for coding

Gentzkow and Shapiro coding guide

Grant McDermott’s data science lectures

Lars Vilhuber’s presentation on transparency and reproducibility

Poverty Action Stata Data and Coding Guide

Roger Koenker’s guide on reproducibility

Sean Higgin’s Stata guide

# Acknowledgments

The coding practices outlined in this guide have been developed over many years. I would especially like to thank my frequent collaborators Tatyana Deryugina and David Molitor for providing many helpful suggestions that have improved my project organization. I also thank Grant McDermott for several helpful conversations regarding version control and reproducibility in R.